Note: For all Biblical quotations, the NKJV is used, unless I am citing the Greek Old Testament (LXX), for which the NETS is used. The italics in Biblical quotations are from the translators to note words added for clarity that are not present in the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek.
This blog post is meant to be read following the previous blog post on Total Depravity and Original Sin. It is not entirely necessary to read them in order, but it does bolster the apology and provide good anthropological grounds for understanding the discussion in this blog post.
The doctrine of election is usually associated with Calvinism in protestant circles and often Augustine or even Aquinas at times in studies of historical theology. On the Protestant side of theology, two broad umbrellas are generally cast onto people, that of “Calvinism” AKA “Reformed” theology or that of “Arminianism*” AKA “Remonstrant” theology. Further subcategories are seen on both sides with variants seen in Wesley on the Arminian side and Amyrhaut on the Calvinist side, among others in both camps. Lutherans, being neither Calvinist nor Arminian fall in a middle-ground in some ways, but are significantly closer to the Reformed on this specific matter. Luther’s works, in particular On the Bondage of the Will, write against man’s free will to choose God.
*This term is being used to describe the definition used in common parlance in modern theology, not necessarily what Arminius or the earliest Remontrants believed.
While some laymen see this to be the point of difference between Calvinists and Arminians, this is really an oversimplification. While other matters of soteriology are related to election, it is not the sole grounds of difference among Protestant soteriology. Some of this oversimplification is a result of a lack of catechesis and doctrinal education, but it is also a matter of logical syllogism, namely: If we are predestined, then election and reprobation are unconditional. If election is unconditional, then grace is irresistible. If grace is irresistible, then Christians cannot fall away. If reprobation is unconditional, then the atonement is limited. Thus Calvinism is seen as a logical conclusion by many. A number of flaws arise in this method of Protestant doctrinal analysis, namely that it fails to address middle-ground positions and presumes that theology must fit into logical syllogism.
In Lutheran doctrine, the matters of election, foreknowledge, and predestination can be found in the Formula of Concord Epitome and Solid Declaration XI. For a more brief and direct focus on the discussion for this article, the following from the Small Catechism Part II – Answer for the Third Article of the Creed will suffice:
“I believe that I cannot by my own reason or strength believe in Jesus Christ, my Lord, or come to Him; but the Holy Ghost has called me by the Gospel, enlightened me with His gifts, sanctified and kept me in the true faith; even as He calls, gathers, enlightens, and sanctifies the whole Christian Church on earth, and keeps it with Jesus Christ in the one true faith; in which Christian Church He forgives daily and richly all sins to me and all believers, and at the last day will raise up me and all the dead, and will give to me and to all believers in Christ everlasting life. This is most certainly true.”
This statement explains that the entire process of salvation is the work of the Holy Ghost. Belief in Christ and coming to Him are not conditional (dependent) on the choice, reason, will, or action of the person— The election is monergistic.
Rather than give a comprehensive or logical argument, providing exegesis on each passage (for which, I am not qualified), I will instead focus on the type of language scripture uses to speak of salvation, providing brief guiding points. I encourage the reader to consider the broader context around each passage; this analysis will only be on the diction in the Bible used to describe Christians.
Rom. 8:29-30 “For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.”
The “ordo salutis,” or “order of salvation” is laid out simply by Paul in Romans 8 and provides a framework for the organization of this blog post. The importance of these verses is that God not only foreknew (προγινώσκω) those whom he would save, he also predestined/fore-ordained (προορίζω) them to salvation and called (καλέω) them to salvation. I will be looking at these ideas in this order as that is how Paul has laid this out.
We see God’s foreknowledge of salvation twice more in scripture:
Rom. 11:1-2 “I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew.”
1 Pet. 1:1-2 “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the pilgrims of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied.”
Here we see that Paul extends this foreknowledge of salvation into the Old Testament, which is important to remember for later discussion. We also see Peter mentioning foreknowledge in a more concrete usage, namely, towards specific groups of Christians whom he is addressing, which should dispel any notion that Paul was merely speaking hypothetically. Peter also connects foreknowledge to election in this verse, which will be covered later.
Romans 8 is perhaps the most frequently cited chapter on predestination, particularly in Reformed circles, but Ephesians 1 also speaks on this doctrine:
Eph. 1:3-6 “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love, having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, to the praise of the glory of His grace, by which He made us accepted in the Beloved.”
Eph. 1:11-12 “In Him also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestined according to the purpose of Him who works all things according to the counsel of His will, that we who first trusted in Christ should be to the praise of His glory.”
In these passages we see that Christ not only predestined, but also chose the elect before the foundation of the world and adopted us according to His will and purpose.
Matt. 20:16/22:14 “So the last will be first, and the first last. For many are called, but few chosen.”
Rom. 1:1, 5-7 “Paul, a bondservant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God…. Through Him we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith among all nations for His name, among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ; to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Rom. 8:28 “And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose.”
1 Cor. 1:1-3 “Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother, to the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all who in every place call on the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
1 Cor. 1:23-24 “For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God.”
Jude 1:1 “Jude, a bondservant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to those who are called, sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ: Mercy, peace, and love be multiplied to you.”
Rev. 17:14 “These will make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for He is Lord of lords and King of kings; and those who are with Him are called, chosen, and faithful.”
We see all throughout the New Testament that we are called by God, another monergistic act of our salvation. Arminians may point out that κλητός can be translated as “invited” for a more synergistic view, but it can be translated also in more monergistic terms as “selected” or “appointed.” Context is the key to understanding how the term should be understood in each passage, but If there is any uncertainty about this call being synergstic, such a notion should be dispelled with the abundance of verses on God’s election.
In the New Testament we see a handful of words that get translated as “elect” or “chosen” in one form or another in English: (syn)Eklektos, Eklegomai, and Eklogē.
(syn)Eklektos is used 25 times in 24 verses in the NT, specifically referring to Christians as elect in 15 places (not counting parallels)
Matt. 20:16/22:14 “So the last will be first, and the first last. For many are called, but few chosen.”
Matt. 24:21-22,24,31 (Mark 13:19-20,22,27)
“For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be. And unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved; but for the elect’s sake those days will be shortened…. Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And He will send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.”
Here we see Jesus speaking of events to come. While the passage is cryptic, nonetheless, Jesus refers to Christians here as the elect.
Following the parable of the persistent widow Jesus explains the meaning in Luke 18:6-8: “Then the Lord said, ‘Hear what the unjust judge said. And shall God not avenge His own elect who cry out day and night to Him, though He bears long with them? I tell you that He will avenge them speedily. Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will He really find faith on the earth?'”
Romans 8 comes up once more explaining the doctrines of election and predestination in verses 31-33: “What then shall we say to these things [doctrines of salvation]? If God is for us, who can be against us? He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things? Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.”
At the end of Romans, Paul greets many people, among them he refers to one individual as “chosen” Rom. 16:13: “Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.” It is not unusual in the New Testament epistles to see the author refer to the recipients as elect/chosen as shown below.
Col. 3:12-13 “Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, put on tender mercies, kindness, humility, meekness, longsuffering; bearing with one another, and forgiving one another, if anyone has a complaint against another; even as Christ forgave you, so you also must do.”
1 Pet. 1:2 “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ,To the pilgrims of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied.” (This passage was already seen in the first section).
1 Pet. 2:4-6, 9 “Coming to Him as to a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious, you also, as living stones, are being built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. Therefore it is also contained in the Scripture,‘Behold, I lay in Zion a chief cornerstone, elect, precious, and he who believes on Him will by no means be put to shame.’ [Is. 28:16 LXX]….Therefore, to you who believe, He is precious; but to those who are disobedient [or disbelieve], “The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone,” [Ps. 117:22 LXX] and“A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense.” [Isaiah 8:14 LXX]. They stumble, being disobedient to the word, to which they also were appointed. But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, His own special people, that you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light; who once were not a people but are now the people of God, who had not obtained mercy but now have obtained mercy.”
What is particularly important about this passage is that Peter connects the idea of election between the Old and New Testament, citing passages which use “eklektos” in the Greek translation of the Old Testament (LXX), which will be examined later.
1 Pet. 5:13 “By Silvanus, our faithful brother as I consider him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God in which you stand. She who is in Babylon, elect together with you, greets you; and so does Mark my son. Greet one another with a kiss of love. Peace to you all who are in Christ Jesus. Amen.”
2 Tim. 2:9-10 “Remember that Jesus Christ, of the seed of David, was raised from the dead according to my gospel, for which I suffer trouble as an evildoer, even to the point of chains; but the word of God is not chained. Therefore I endure all things for the sake of the elect, that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.”
2 Jo. 1:1-3 “The Elder, to the elect lady and her children, whom I love in truth, and not only I, but also all those who have known the truth, because of the truth which abides in us and will be with us forever: Grace, mercy, and peace will be with you [or us] from God the Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love.”
2 Jo. 1:12-13 “Having many things to write to you, I did not wish to do so with paper and ink; but I hope to come to you and speak face to face, that our joy may be full. The children of your elect sister greet you. Amen.
Titus 1:1-4 “Paul, a bondservant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God’s elect and the acknowledgment of the truth which accords with godliness, in hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before time began, but has in due time manifested His word through preaching, which was committed to me according to the commandment of God our Savior; To Titus…”
In Rev. 17:14 the angel says to John, “The ten horns which you saw are ten kings who have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive authority for one hour as kings with the beast. 13 These are of one mind, and they will give their power and authority to the beast. 14 These will make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for He is Lord of lords and King of kings; and those who are with Him are called, chosen, and faithful.”
Eklegomai is used 25 times in 19 verses in the NT, specifically referring to God choosing Christians in 2 places
Nearly identical to the Matthew 24 passage above, Mark 13:19-20 refers to Christians as both “the elect” and “chosen:” “For in those days there will be tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the creation which God created until this time, nor ever shall be. And unless the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh would be saved; but for the elect’s sake, whom He chose, He shortened the days.”
Ephesians 1:3-4 “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love…” (This passage was already seen in the second section).
Eklogē is used 7 times in 7 verses in the NT, specifically referring to the election of Christians in 5 places
Rom. 9:10-12 “…when Rebecca also had conceived by one man, even by our father Isaac (for the children not yet being born, nor having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works but of Him who calls), it was said to her, “The older shall serve the younger.” [Gen. 25:23] As it is written, “Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated.” [Mal. 1:2, 3].”
Rom. 11:3-7 “‘LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life’? [1 Kings 19:10, 14] But what does the divine response say to him? “I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.” [1 Kings 19:18] Even so then, at this present time there is a remnant according to the election of grace. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work. What then? Israel has not obtained what it seeks; but the elect have obtained it, and the rest were blinded.”
Rom. 11:28 “Concerning the gospel they [Israel] are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers.”
1 Thess. 1:2-4 “We give thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you in our prayers, remembering without ceasing your work of faith, labor of love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ in the sight of our God and Father, knowing, beloved brethren, your election by God.”
2 Pet. 1:10-11 “Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your call and election sure, for if you do these things you will never stumble; for so an entrance will be supplied to you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.”
The Old Testament
As seen in all of the above passages, we see an abundance of language in the New Testament which refers to Christians as “foreknown,” “predestined,” “called,” “elect,” and “chosen.” This language, however, is not isolated to the New Testament. The Old Testament refers to Israel in the same manner. In Hebrew, “Bachar” is translated as “to choose, elect, decide for,” and “Bachiyr” is translated as “chosen, choice one, elect.” In the LXX, we see Bachar being translated as Eklegomai and Bachiyr being translated as Eklektos.
Bachar is found 172 times in 164 verses. There are 9 passages where it is both translated as Eklegomai and refers to Israel being “chosen” or “elect.”
Deut. 4:36-38 “Out of heaven He let you hear His voice, that He might instruct you; on earth He showed you His great fire, and you heard His words out of the midst of the fire. And because He loved your fathers, therefore He chose their descendants after them; and He brought you out of Egypt with His Presence, with His mighty power, driving out from before you nations greater and mightier than you, to bring you in, to give you their land as an inheritance, as it is this day.”
Deut 7:7-8 “The LORD did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number than any other people, for you were the least of all peoples; but because the LORD loves you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore to your fathers, the LORD has brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you from the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.”
Deut 10:15 “The LORD delighted only in your fathers, to love them; and He chose their descendants after them, you above all peoples, as it is this day.”
Deut. 14:1-2 “You are the children of the LORD your God; you shall not cut yourselves nor shave the front of your head for the dead. For you are a holy people to the LORD your God, and the LORD has chosen you to be a people for Himself, a special treasure above all the peoples who are on the face of the earth.”
1 Kings 3:7-8 “Now, O LORD my God, You have made Your servant king instead of my father David, but I am a little child; I do not know how to go out or come in. 8 And Your servant is in the midst of Your people whom You have chosen, a great people, too numerous to be numbered or counted.”
Ps. 33:12 (32:12 LXX) “Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD,
The people He has chosen as His own inheritance.”
Isa. 14:1 “For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will still choose Israel, and settle them in their own land. The strangers will be joined with them, and they will cling to the house of Jacob.”
Isa. 44:1 “Yet hear now, O Jacob My servant, and Israel whom I have chosen.”
Ezek. 20:5 “Say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD: “On the day when I chose Israel and raised My hand in an oath to the descendants of the house of Jacob, and made Myself known to them in the land of Egypt, I raised My hand in an oath to them, saying, ‘I am the LORD your God.’”
Bachiyr is found 13 times in 13 verses. There are 8 passages where it is both translated as Eklektos and refers to Israel being “chosen” or “elect.”
1 Chron. 16:13 “O seed of Israel His servant, you children of Jacob, His chosen ones!”
Ps. 89:3 (88:4 LXX) “I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn to My servant David: ‘Your seed I will establish forever, and build up your throne to all generations.’”
Ps. 105:6 (104:6 LXX) “O seed of Abraham His servant, you children of Jacob, His chosen ones!”
Ps. 105:43 (104:43 LXX) “He brought out His people with joy, His chosen ones with gladness.”
Ps. 106:4-5 (105:5 LXX) “Remember me, O LORD, with the favor You have toward Your people. Oh, visit me with Your salvation, that I may see the benefit of Your chosen ones, that I may rejoice in the gladness of Your nation, that I may glory with Your inheritance.”
Isa. 43:20-21 “The beast of the field will honor Me, the jackals and the ostriches, because I give waters in the wildernessAnd rivers in the desert, to give drink to My people, My chosen. This people I have formed for Myself; they shall declare My praise.”
Isa. 45:4 “For Jacob My servant’s sake and Israel My elect, I have even called you by your name; I have named you, though you have not known Me.”
Isa. 65:9, 15, 22 “I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah an heir of My mountains; My elect shall inherit it, and My servants shall dwell there…. You shall leave your name as a curse to My chosen; for the Lord GOD will slay you, and call His servants by another name….They shall not build and another inhabit; they shall not plant and another eat; for as the days of a tree, so shall be the days of My people, and My elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands.”
The apocryphal/deuterocanonical works in the LXX have four passages that use Eklektos to refer to Israel as “chosen.”
Old Greek Est. 7:19-21 “And you will do well to post a copy of this letter [of Artaxerxes] in every place and to allow the Judeans to live in accordance with their own precepts and to join in helping themselves against those who attack in the time of oppression, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, Adar, on that same day. For God, who rules over all things has made this day to be a joy for His chosen race instead of a day of destruction for them.”
Wsd. 3:9/4:15 “Those who trust in Him will understand truth, and the faithful will remain with Him in love, because grace and mercy are upon His holy ones, and he watches over His chosen ones.”
Sir. 46:1 “Mighty in war was Jesus son of Naue and a successor of Moses in prophecies, who was, like his name, great for the salvation of His elect, to take vengeance on enemies when stirred up, so that he might give Israel an inheritance.”
Sir. 47:22 “But the Lord will never abandon His mercy and never caused of any of His words to perish, and he will never blot out the descendants of His chosen one, and he will never take away the seed of the one who loved Him, and He gave a remnant of Jacob, and to David a root out of him.”
Other verses of support
Prov. 8:35 (LXX) “For my egressions are the egressions of life, and the incentive is prepared by the Lord.” Incentive here is the Greek “thelesis” which is generally rendered “wanting” or “will.”
Jn. 1:12-13 “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of Go, to those who believe in His name: who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.”
Jn. 6:44 “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day.”
Jn. 6:65 “And He said, “Therefore I have said to you that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted to him by My Father.””
Acts 5:29-32 “But Peter and the other apostles answered and said: ‘We ought to obey God rather than men. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus whom you murdered by hanging on a tree. Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins. And we are His witnesses to these things, and so also is the Holy Spirit whom God has given to those who obey Him.'”
Acts 11:18 “When they heard these things they became silent; and they glorified God, saying, ‘Then God has also granted to the Gentiles repentance to life.”
Acts 13:48 “For so the Lord has commanded us:‘I have set you as a light to the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the ends of the earth’ ” [Isa. 49:6]. Now when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and glorified the word of the Lord. And as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed.”
Rom. 10:20 (Isa. 65:1) “I was found by those who did not seek Me; I was made manifest to those who did not ask for Me.
1 Cor. 2:13-16 “These things we also speak, not in words which man’s wisdom teaches but which the Holy Spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But he who is spiritual judges all things, yet he himself is rightly judged by no one. For “who has known the mind of the LORD that he may instruct Him?” [Isa. 40:31] But we have the mind of Christ.”
Eph. 2:8-9 “For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should boast.”
Phil. 2:12-13 “Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure.”
2 Timothy 2:24-26 “And a servant of the Lord must not quarrel but be gentle to all, able to teach, patient, in humility correcting those who are in opposition, if God perhaps will grant them repentance, so that they may know the truth, and that they may come to their senses and escape the snare of the devil, having been taken captive by him to do his will.”
We can see from the above passages that the human will is prepared and worked by the Lord (Prov. 8 (LXX), Phil. 2), being reborn does not depend on the will of man (Jn. 1); none come to the father lest they be drawn and granted by God (Jn. 6); God gives repentance to man (Acts 5, 11, 2 Tim. 2); God appoints people to eternal life (Acts 13); God finds His followers not by those who ask or seek Him, but on His own (Rom. 10) natural man considers the things of God to be foolish, being unable to know them unless they be enlightened by God (1 Cor. 2); and salvation is not of ourselves, but a gift from God, which is not of any of our own actions (Eph. 2).
Appendix – the Predestination Controversy
In many early Lutheran writings election is written to be “in view of faith.” This means that God foresees those who will have faith and persevere in faith unto death and elects them unto salvation. Furthermore, in early Arminian writings, including the Arminian Confessions, this same profession is made. Both the early Lutherans and Arminians, however, make it clear that this view upholds a monergistic election as faith is considered a gift of God, and is not dependent on the choice of man. Lutherans settled much of this dispute in the 16th and 17th centuries in the “synergist controversy.” Later Arminians, in particular those that followed John Wesley, disagreed with the earliest Arminians and professed that the human will does play a role in conversion.
In the 19th century, the language of “election in view of faith” was disputed among Lutherans. On one side, those that followed the theology of CFW Walther and Franz Pieper contended that this language was no longer useful as it was widely used among Wesleyans to mean “election in view of man’s decision to faith.” Those that opposed Walther and Pieper insisted on continuing the use of this language saying that it was present among all of the earlier Lutheran writers. While Walther and Pieper argued that their opponents were teaching a synergistic election, their opponents insisted that they were being falsely labeled. A discussion of this debate would be far too long for a blog post as many volumes have been written on the subject, of which the chief books would be the CPH edition of Walther’s Works on Predestination, Pieper’s volume on Conversion and Election, and on the opposing side, Matthias Loy’s The Error of Modern Missouri.